The role of the Microbiome in cancer development and therapy

The human body harbors enormous numbers of micro biota that influence cancer susceptibility, in part through their prodigious metabolic capacity and their profound influence on immune cell function. Even larger numbers of malignancies are associated with an altered composition of commensal micro biota (dysbiosis) based on Microbiome studies using metagenomic sequencing. Micro biota can alter cancer susceptibility and progression by diverse mechanisms, such as modulating inflammation, inducing DNA damage, and producing metabolites involved in oncogenesis or tumor suppression. Micro biota can be manipulated for improving cancer treatment. By incorporating probiotics as adjuvants for checkpoint immunotherapy or by designing small molecules that target microbial enzymes, micro biota can be harnessed to improve cancer care. The efficacy of chemotherapy/immunotherapy likely depends on an individual's micro biota, maintenance of microbial diversity is critical for human health. Steps should be taken to prevent indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Furthermore, encouraging a diverse, plant‐based diet facilitates microbial diversity.

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