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4th International Conference on Microbiome, Probiotics & Gut Nutrition, will be organized around the theme “”
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A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host.
The human microbiome may play a role in the activation of toll-like receptors in the intestines, a type of pattern recognition receptor host cells use to recognize dangers and repair damage. Pathogens can influence this coexistence leading to immune dysregulation including and susceptibility to diseases, mechanisms of inflammation, immune tolerance, and autoimmune diseases.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), also termed bacterial overgrowths, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), is a disorder of excessive small intestine. Patients with bacterial overgrowth that is longstanding can develop complications of their illness as a result of malabsorption of nutrients. Probiotics<span style="\"color:" rgb(34,="" 34,="" 34);="" background-image:="" initial;="" background-position:="" background-size:="" background-repeat:="" background-attachment:="" background-origin:="" background-clip:="" initial;\"=""> are bacterial preparations that alter the bacterial flora in the bowel to cause a beneficial effect. Animal research has demonstrated that probiotics have barrier enhancing, antibacterial, immune modulating and anti-inflammatory effects which may have a positive effect in the management of SIBO in humans.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The relationship between some gut flora and humans is not merely commensal (a non-harmful coexistence), but rather a mutualistic relationship. An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has a widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far-reaching consequences on host health and development. Diet, functional foods, and gut microbiota transplantation are areas that have yielded some therapeutic success in modulating the gut microbiota and warrant further investigation of their effects on various disease states.
The four dominant bacterial phyla in the human gut are:
Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body in building and maintaining a healthy colony of bacteria and other microorganisms, which supports the gut and aids digestion. These food components help promote beneficial bacteria by providing food and creating an environment where microorganisms can flourish. Prebiotics are present in fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Probiotics occur in many fermented foods, including yogurt, sauerkraut, and tempeh.
Host-Microbe interactions are the collaborations occurring between a pathogen (e.g. infection, microscopic organisms) and their host (e.g. people, plants). The host-pathogen interface presents intriguing cell changes perceptible under electron microscope - occurrence to the pathogens for upgraded harmfulness, including arrangement of surface "invasosomal" periplasmic organelles and exocytosis of bacterial external film vesicles by gram-negative pathogens. Host cell cytoskeletal reorganizational changes e.g., unsettle development, adjusted phagocytosis; and so on additionally occur as a prelude to microbial attack.
- Genetic and Physiological Adaptation to the Host
- Host Response to Microbes
- Cellular/Molecular Host-Microbe Interactions
- Invasion and Survival in Host Cells
- Manipulations of Host Functions by Microbes
- Microbe-Plant Interactions
- Microbiome-Host Interactions
- Phage-Host Interactions
- Sepsis and Inflammation
- Surface Structures of Pathogenic Microbes
- Toxins and Secreted Factors
- Virulence Regulatory Mechanisms
- Virus-Host Interactions
- Microbial Metabolism and Host Association
- Anti-pathogen Strategies
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) occupy the rhizosphere of many plant species and have beneficial effects on the host plant. They may influence the plant in a direct or indirect manner. A direct mechanism would be to increase plant growth by supplying the plant with nutrients and hormones; Indirect mechanisms on the otherhand, include, reduced susceptibility to diseases, and activating a form of defense referred to as induced systematic resistance. Soil microorganisms are the most abundant of all the biota in soil and responsible for driving nutrient and organic matter cycling, soil fertility, soil restoration, plant health and ecosystem primary production. Beneficial microorganisms include those that create symbiotic associations with plant roots like rhizobia, mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes, diazotrophic bacteria, promote nutrient mineralization and availability, produce plant growth hormones, and are antagonists of plant pests, parasites or diseases. Many of these organisms are already naturally present in the soil, although in some situations it may be beneficial to increase their populations by either inoculation or by applying various agricultural management techniques that enhance their abundance and activity.
The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms. The skin and mucous membranes always harbor a variety of microorganisms that can be arranged into two groups: 1. the resident microbiota consists of relatively fixed types of microorganisms regularly found in a given area at a given age; if disturbed, it promptly reestablishes itself; and 2. the transient microbiota consists of nonpathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms that inhabit the skin or mucous membranes for hours, days, or weeks. The transient microbiota is derived from the environment, does not produce disease.