Microbiome as a human organ

Microbiome: Deciphering the Last Organ of the Human Body

The human organism is a complex structure composed of cells belonging to all three domains of life on Earth, Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea, as well as their viruses. Bacterial cells of more than a thousand taxonomic units are condensed in a particular functional collective domain, the intestinal Microbiome. The Microbiome constitutes the last human organ under active research Microbiome is readily inherited. Like any other organ, the Microbiome has physiology and pathology, and the individual health might be damaged when its collective population structure is altered. The diagnostic of microbiomic diseases involves metagenomic studies. The therapeutics of Microbiome‐induced pathology include micro biota transplantation, a technique increasingly available Microbiome can be regarded as a human organ from the physiological standpoint Perhaps we can envisage ‘microbiomology’ as a future specialty. Devoted to the study of the physiology, pathology, diagnostics, therapy and prevention of alterations of the community structure of the Microbiome. The importance of the Microbiome has been highlighted by the microbial ‘abnormalities’ found in pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity or malnutrition. Diagnosis of Microbiome diseases is based at present on full metagenomic DNA sequencing and computational advances that can inform about and differentiate core micro biota and changing micro biota these ‘diagnostic’ techniques should also be able to evaluate the role of mobile genetic elements, which deeply influence the connectivity of the Microbiome. The therapy of Microbiome diseases will be part of future interventions based on eco‐evo drugs and strategies. Addressing Microbiome restoration by transplantation is crucial to advance in the curing of Microbiome diseases A more advanced field of research in the therapy of Microbiome diseases will be the discovery of drugs acting on host–Microbiome and intra‐Microbiome signals and interactions.

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