Day 1 :
- The Skin Microbiome
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
Alicia Showering is a final year PhD student at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine working on a multi-disciplinary project exploring the role of the skin microbiome in human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Alicia has used 16S sequencing, metabolomics and behavioural studies to investigate the skin microbiome and body odour profile of two cohorts of twins, in the UK and Gambia. Alicia is interested in opportunities to apply her expertise to develop innovative technologies to improve health in the future.
Background: Some people produce specific body odours that make them more attractive than others to mosquitoes, and consequently are at higher risk of contracting vector-borne diseases.
Results: Here, we examined how skin microbiome composition of women differs in relation to level of attractiveness to Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes, to identify volatiles in body odour and metabolic pathways associated with individuals that tend to be poorly-attractive to mosquitoes. We found differences in skin microbiome composition between the poorly- and highly-attractive groups, particularly eight Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) belonging to the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Propanoic pathways are enriched in the poorly-attractive participants compared to those found to be highly-attractive. We found attractiveness to mosquitoes and some genera of bacteria to be heritable that suggests a genetic component to mosquito attractiveness.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that variation in attractiveness of people to mosquitoes is related to the composition of the skin microbiota, knowledge that could improve odour-baited traps or other next generation vector control tools.
- Gut Microbiota
UniversitÃ© de Sherbrooke, Canada
Manijeh has completed his first PhD in pharmaceutical biotechnology from Isfahan university of medical sciences and started her second PhD in Biochemistry at Universite de Sherbrooke. She works on the gut microbiome and its role in the gastrointestinal manifestations of Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 patients in both mice and human samples. Her H-index is 8 and has published about 24 papers in reputed journals.
Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder found highly prevalent in the province of Québec, Canada. MD type 1 is characterized by an abnormal trinucleotide CTG repeat located in the 3’ untranslated region of DMPK, the gene encoding the DM protein kinase located on chromosome 19q13.3. The core pathogenic feature of MD1 is the intra-nuclear blockage of RNA-binding proteins with the toxic RNA repeat, resulting in a wide array of nonfunctional proteins. Although MD1 is primarily characterized by progressive muscular weakness, there are many multisystemic symptoms: cognitive deficits, cardiac conduction abnormalities, diabetes, and cataracts, as well as endocrine and reproductive problems. Involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also frequent and can affect the whole digestive tract from the pharynx to the anal sphincter. However, it is not clear if these GI symptoms are caused by biomechanical problems of the intestine or if the intestinal microbiota is involved. The objective of this study is to assess the role of the gut microbiota in the GI symptoms of MD1 patients. Stool samples from 50 MD1 patients were collected, and their close family members used as controls. These samples were sequenced by 16s MiSeq and analyzed with DADA2 to generate taxonomic signatures. Our analysis indicated that the status of MD1 significantly changes gut bacterial community structure as for the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteriota Phylum. These results might help understand how the gut microbiota, in addition to the biomechanics, can affect the gastrointestinal tract of MD1 patients.
- Probiotics and Prebiotics
Tropilite Biosciences Pvt Ltd, India
Dr Mithilesh Jaiswal is an industrial microbiologist has expertise in Starter cultures, Probiotics, Synbiotics, Enzymes and Biofertilizers. He has more than 14 years of Research and 10 years of Industrial experience. For his work he has received various recognition and appreciation at National and International level. He has also developed various formulations for human and animal health care. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree from R.D. University, Jabalpur (M.P.), India. He is currently working on synbiotic product development for Human and Animal health application and its commercialization. He has published various research papers and articles in peer reviewed journals.
In the 21st Century Probiotics are treated as a solution or remedy for all types of difficulties or diseases due to its remedial potential to protect the body from gastrointestinal dysbiosis, systematic metabolic diseases up to complicated neurodegenerative disorders. Probiotics work as biotherapeutic agents and are very much effective in growth promotion of animals, protection of host from intestinal infections, alleviation of lactose intolerance, relief of constipation, anticarcinogenic effect, anticholesterolaemic effects, nutrient synthesis and bioavailability, prevention of genital and urinary tract infections, immunostimulatory effects and many more.
Due to several advantages over traditional treatment therapies, probiotics are much popular as “Bio-therapy” which increased their application in food and medicine. The therapeutic potential of probiotic is the outcome of emerging field of biotechnology. Advancement in the biotechnology field offer a great choice to deliver a marvellous health advantages.
In last decades, several research has been published related to the potential health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic ingredients. Also, the therapeutic potential of probiotics has been assessed through various preclinical and clinical studies. These studies indicating the potential role of probiotics in several health benefits. Therefore, Food and Nutraceuticals Industries employs probiotics as functional and Nutraceuticals ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of food products in terms of increased health benefits.
However, efficacy of probiotics still needs an in-depth understanding of systematic mechanisms and factors supporting the healthy actions. Also need to develop Probiotics containing foods products and supplements with the cooperation of legal bodies to ensure the safety of the consumers.
Key words: Probiotics, Synbiotics, Therapeutic, gut microbiota, dysbiosis
Boise State University, USA
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz received his Ph.D. in Biological Sciences (Cellular and Molecular Biology Program) from the University of Navarra in Spain. He was trained as a postdoctoral scientist at Montana State University and Dartmouth College, exploring the impact of the gut mucosal immune responses to microbes on CNS inflammatory demyelination. At Dartmouth College, he studied mechanisms of immunomodulation induced by gut symbionts and polysaccharide A (PSA) produced by Bacteroides fragilis in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using animal models of the disease. He has industry experience working for a large pharmaceutical company as a scientific member of their MS platform. As a faculty at EWU, he continues working on the reciprocal interaction between the gut microbiome and disease, with a specific focus on immunomodulation mediated by gut microbes and microbiome-modifying treatments in CNS demyelinating inflammation.
Statement of the Problem: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). Over 2.8 million patients are affected worldwide. The gut-microbiota-brain axis has emerged as a critical pathway in the regulation of neuroinflammation. The gut microbiome regulates the severity of many experimental models of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelination. Our most recent findings demonstrate that the microbiota of mice from different sources affects the severity of CNS inflammatory demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Neuroinflammation modified the gut microbiota composition. The disease progression resulted in a significant reduction in members of lactic acid bacteria. Among the altered taxa, bacteria producing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were significantly reduced. We hypothesized that modifying the microbiota with a probiotic while increasing intestinal GABA levels would reduce EAE's severity. Methodology: We genetically engineered a Lactococcus lactis with increased GABA production and used the EAE model induced in C57BL/6 mice from two different commercial vendors to test its protective efficacy. Results: Real-time quantitative PCR data demonstrated an elevated expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), while GABA-specific ELISA showed a significant increase in neurotransmitter production when exposed to increasing concentrations of glutamic acid and time. In vivo, five times/week oral gavages with 5 x 108 CFU/mouse of GAD L. lactis but not with empty-plasmid carrier L. lactis protected against EAE compared with sham-treated mice, while preventing weight loss. However, protection was dependent on the initial composition of the microbiome. Conclusion & Significance: Our results show that the increase of GABA at the intestinal level with the oral treatment with a probiotic strain protects against neuroinflammation in the CNS.